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> A World of Darkness - 1st Edition(WW2220) 翻译尝试
GreyGate
2019-11-25, 19:40
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我来试试翻译《World of Darkness - 1st Edition(WW2220)》
英语能力有限,欢迎任何形式的指教。
<p7 Introduction>
尽管血族对美国展示了兴趣,但新世界仅仅是他们意图中的一小部分。整个星球都在宏大的秩序中旋转,等待成熟之时被采摘。他们看似和文明共进,可事实并非如此。尽管如今,在现代社会不死者的踪迹无法……至少很难被找到,但是,哪里的文明变得繁荣与昌盛,血族便作为一股强大的势力,一种不可匹敌的力量隐藏在政权背后。
QUOTE
Despite the interest the Kindred show in America and the United States, the New World is only a small part of their concerns. A whole world spins in monolithic order, ripe for the plucking. For cons they have followed the progress of civilization, and even where it is no more, at least some trace of the Undead can be found. But where civilization continues, and grows strong, there the Kindred can be found in force, a power beyond reason.

他们已经成为了世间常态的一部分,即便仍然需要隐藏和伪装,但却已经端坐在世界的边缘,夺其所欲,带回死亡。他们渗透了文化的根基,蠕虫般钻入最具生机的部份并腐化他们所能的一切。然而,他们并非是这黑暗世界的全部。
QUOTE
They become a part of landscape, hidden and disguised, but an element which exists on the edges, taking it wants and returning death. They seep into the very foundation of the culture, worming their way into its most vital parts and corrupting all they can. However, they are not all there is to this world of darkness.

狼人,法师,妖精和精魂全都存在于现实的边界。吸血鬼有着自己的游戏,他们在这满是母牛的世界上玩着他们的游戏。然而,并不只有他们,其他传说中的存在也有着他们各自的玩法和目标,通常和血族们的游戏冲突,但也有一些时候存在合作。
QUOTE
Werewolves, magi ,fairies and spirits all exist on the periphery of reality. Vampires have their game, and they play it through the world of the kine, but theirs is not the only one. The other beings of legend have their own methods and goals, often in conflict with the Kindred but sometimes in conjunction.

但是,即便是这些强大的神秘存在也并不是超自然谱系的全部。如WOD的其他产品表明的那样,这个世界上存在的超自然生物甚至比不死者预想的还多。
QUOTE
However, even these powerful figures of myth are not the whole of the supernatural spectrum. As illustrated through A World of Darkness and other supplements, more exists in this world than even the Undead may suspect.

这都取决于ST,他是神秘编年史的创作者与修改者,由他来决定出现哪些反自然角色。即便从头到尾都没有加入狼人,裂隙中的恶魔,疯狂的巫师,腐烂的木乃伊,活着的公寓或吸血猫,只有血族和他们的母牛,ST也可以创造一篇精彩的编年史。
QUOTE
It is up to the Storyteller, the maker and shaper of the myths of Chronicle to decide the role of these unnatural powers. One can have engage in a fully satisfying Chronicle from start fo finish without ever adding anything other then the Kinderd and kine--no werewolves, demons from the pits, crazed sorcerers, rotting mummies, living mansions or blood-drinking Cats.

该隐之子的圣战对任何玩家都足够充实,刺激,危险。对那些想要将故事扩展到这个模板的人,WOD提供了一个开始点。它不仅仅描述了血族在这个星球上的社会与阴谋,更一瞥了那些居住在未名地区的生物——他们同样神秘,同样致命。
QUOTE
The Jyhad of the Cainites can be completely fulfilling, dangerous and exciting enough for any player. For those who want to stretch their Stories beyongd this format, A World of Darkness provides a starting point. Not only does it offer descriptions of the Kindred communities and conspiracies around the planet, but it provides a glimpse into those unlit areas where creatures equally mysterious--and equally deadly--dwell.

焦点集中在吸血鬼上,相较于邪恶寓言故事中的其他所有生物,他们是最迷恋人类的。人类在哪里建立家园,哪里就吸引吸血鬼。从伦敦到约旦到香港到海地,只要这些城市居住着母牛,不死者就一定能被找到。
QUOTE
The focus is on Vampires for of all the creatures of wicked fables, they are the ones most enamored of humanity. Where humans make their home, there too treads the Vampire. From London to Jordan to HongKong to Haiti, in all these places the kine resides, the Undead are sure to be found.

当然,这本书中包含的所有内容都依赖于你的想象力。约旦——如此强大的该隐子嗣的家园没有理由处在神秘的Taluq或埃尔多拉城堡的控制下,除非这是为了更好的故事或引人入胜的编年史。就像《Vampire: The Masquerade》的所有产品一样,于此呈现的所有内容都存在于ST的突发奇想。如果你感到它和你想要建立编年史的世界中的概念,氛围,主题不搭,可以自由取消任何一个扩展。
QUOTE
Of course, everything contained within this book is dependent upon you and your imagination. There is no reason for Jordan to be under the control of the mysterious Talaq or Hunedoara castle home to such powerful Cainites except as it makes for better stories and a more compelling Chronicle. As with any product for Vampire: The Masquerade, everything presented herein exists at the the whim of the Storyteller. Feel free to discard any part of this supplement you feel does not fit the concept, mood or theme of the world where you want you Chronicle to take place.

另外,没有一个部份应被认为是完善又一尘不变的。添加你自己的吸血鬼,改变那些被提供的动机,或者将其全部删除。这都留给ST自由发挥,并且,既然任何人都可以买到这本书,制作个人的改动一定能保证惊喜。
QUOTE
Additionally, none of these sections should be considered whole and immutable. Add your own Vampires, change the motivations of those provided or subtract them altogether. Room has been left for the Storyteller's creations and, since anyone can go out and buy this book, making one's own changes is a sure way to keep the surprise intact.

最后,如果你真的按照原样使用这本书,记住,即便在一个充满行尸走肉的世界中,事物也非一尘不变。一切的一切都能彻底改变角色或其他人的行动,而且它确实需要改变。白狼游戏公司将会推出更多产品来更新这个黑暗世界,但是就像我们的更新一样,你的编年史也将会遵循你的创造力而改变。今天女王可能在伦敦执政,明天她也可能会在白天被钉在天花板上。暴君就应该如此下场(Sic semper tyrannis)。
QUOTE
Finally, if one does use this book as is, remember that even in the world of the Walking Dead things are not static. Any and all of this can change through the actions of characters or others, and indeed it should. White Wold will be releasing more products fleshing out this world of darkness, but your Chronicle will develop through your own creativity as well as ours. While the Queen may reign in London today, she may be staked to a roof on the morn Sic semper tyrannis.

This post has been edited by 河伯大君: 2019-11-29, 05:32
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GreyGate
2019-11-25, 21:49
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<P8 The British Isles——Introduction Geography Physical>

The British Isles
不列颠群岛
Written by Graeme Davis,Art by Larry Mcdougal

只有疯狗和英国人在会在正午的时候外出。
-诺埃尔·考沃德(Noel Coward),《黑色恋情(Mad Dogs and Englishmen)》
QUOTE
Mad dogs and Englishmen go out in the mid-day sun.
-Noel Coward, Mad Dogs and Englishmen

Introduction
介绍
我们不能期望这个章节涵盖不列颠群岛的全部历史与地理,也不能期望它能理清并描述好该隐之子们(的故事)。但是,在接下来的章节里会提供一些对不列颠群岛地点,人物和是件的概括,希望能给读者提供一个宏观概括。那些想要了解更多信息的人会发现寻找一些去不列颠群岛的指南书(可以在绝大多数商店找到)会是一个更方便的方法;想要了解某个特定时代的历史,很少有比《英格兰都铎王朝历史(平装版)》更好的入门书籍,它很昂贵,是写给普通人的读物,并且所有优秀书店都卖它。
QUOTE
This chapter cannot hope to cover the entire history and geography of the British Isles, nor give an exhaustive listing and description of the islands' Cainite population. Instead, the following pages present a summary of places, personalities and events, hoping to give the reader a broad overview. Those interested in reading further will find travel guides to Britain and Ireland (available in most bookstores) a convenient way to pick up key information about an area; to look further into a particular period of history, there are few better starting points than The Pelican History of England paperbacks, which are expensive, written for ordinary people to understand, and available in most good bookstores.
在开始详细讲述前,作者还想申明,本虚构作品中,若是任何事件或人物的相似处使读者感到痛苦和愤怒,都绝非作者本意。所有政治观点或解释是作者自身的,并且作者为更好地服务游戏扭曲了部分事件。这毕竟不是真正的不列颠群岛,而是一个哥特朋克的吸血鬼世界中的不列颠群岛。
QUOTE
Before going any further, the author would also like to make it clear that any resemblance between events and personalities is entirely contrived. Any distress or outrage which these fictional contrivances may cause to any readers is unintentional. Any political opinions or interpretations are entirely the author's own, and events have sometimes been slanted to better serve the game, This is not the real British Isles: it's the British Isles in the Gothic-Punk world of Vampire.

Geography
地理
经常有人对英格兰、不列颠、大不列颠、联合王国和不列颠群岛之间的区别感到困惑。不必说,这些岛屿的居民小心翼翼地守卫这些区别,以一种愉悦与蔑视回应外国人的困惑。其实这些区别是非常简单易懂的。
QUOTE
There is often confusion over the distinctions between England, Britain, Great Britain, the United Kingdom and the British Isles. Needless to say, the inhabitants of these Islands guard these distinctions jealously, and react to foreigners' confusion with a mixture of amusement and contempt. The differences are actually very straightforward.
英格兰是建立起不列颠群岛中最大的岛屿不列颠的三个国家的其中之一(与威尔士和苏格兰一起)。地理名称“不列颠群岛”包含爱尔兰岛,尽管爱尔兰人通常不喜欢任何与不列颠之间的隐式结合(这类内容属于历史板块)。大不列颠一般用来指代包含不列颠岛和例如安格尔西岛(Angelsey)、马儿(Mull)岛、怀特岛(Wight)这样许多的小近岸岛屿的政治实体。联合王国是包含大不列颠和北爱尔兰的政治实体。
QUOTE
England is one of three nations which (together with Wales and Scotland) makes up the island of Britain, which is the largest of the British Isles. The geographical term"British Isles" includes Ireland, although the Irish often dislike any implied association with Britain. (More of this under the heading of History) Great Britain is the term used to refer to the political entity which consists of the island of Britain and various small offshore islands, such as Angelsey, Mull and the Isle of Wight. The United Kingdom is the political entity which consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
尽管他们对外国人会混淆这样的问题感到厌恶,但很少有不列颠人坚持用这些术语。哪怕对最固执最学究的人而言,‘不列颠’、‘大不列颠’和‘联合王国’或多或少都代表一个意思;重要的是记住英格兰人,威尔士人,苏格兰人和爱尔兰人的区别。在不列颠诸岛上你能做的最危险的事就是询问一个苏格兰人你来自英格兰的什么地方,同样的还有询问爱尔兰人相同的问题。
QUOTE
Despite their disgust at foreign confusion over the issue, very few Britions use these terms consistently. For all but the most doggedly pedantic, the terms "Britain"Great Britain" and "United Kingdom" are more or less the same; the important thing is to keep in mind the distinctions between English, Welsh, Scots and Irish. Asking a Scot what part of England he is from is one of the most dangerous things you can do in these islands, with the possible exception of asking an Irishman the same questions.

Physical
自然
英格兰由东方南方肥沃的低地和西方北方的山地和沼地组成。最高点是康伯瑞恩郡(Cumbrain)的斯科非峰(Scafell),978米(大约3,180 英尺)。主要河流系统为东南方的泰晤士河(Thames),西南方的赛文河(Seven),以及北方的亨伯河(Humber),蒂斯河(Tees),泰恩河(Tyne)。
QUOTE
England consists mainly of fertile lowlands in the south and east, with hills and moorland in the north and west. The highest point is Scafell in Cumbrain, at 978 meters(approximately 3180 feet.)Major river systems are the Thames in the southeast, the Seven in the south west, and the Humber, Tees and Tyne in the north.
威尔士是一个多山的国家,肥沃的土地只存于通往爱尔兰海峡的东西方山谷深处——窄细的海岸低地和丰饶的安格尔西岛(Anglesey)。最高点在雪墩山(Mount Snowdon)1,085米(大约3,525)英尺。
QUOTE
Wales is a mountainous country, with fertile ground only in the deep east-west valleys which run down to the Irish Sea, the narrow strips of coastal lowland and the rich island of Anglesey. The highest point is Mount Snowdon, at 1,085 meters (approximately 3,525 feet).
苏格兰由南方低地和北方的高地,以及许多位于崎岖的西海岸的岛屿构成。最高点位于本尼维斯山(Ben Nevis)1343米(大约4,365英尺)。
QUOTE
Scotland consists of southern lowlands and northern highlands, with many islands, especially on the rugged west coast. The highest point is Ben Nevis, at 1,343 meters(approximately 4,365 feet).
爱尔兰是一个崎岖山地,泥泞沼地和肥沃低地的综合体。整体看来,它是不列颠诸岛中最潮湿的。它的最高点在卡朗图厄尔山(Carrauntoohil)1041米(大约3,383英尺)
QUOTE
Ireland is a mixture of rugged mountains, peat marshes and fertile lowlands. On the whole, it is the wettest of the islands. Its highest point is Carrauntoohil, at 1,041 meters (approximately 3,383 feet).
除了不列颠岛和爱尔兰岛之外,还有各种各样的更小的岛屿和岛屿群落。赫布里底群岛(hebrides),奥克尼斯群岛(Orkneys),雪德兰群岛(Shetlands)依序位于苏格兰岛西方,北方和东北。马恩岛坐落在不列颠和爱尔兰之间的爱尔兰海上。
QUOTE
In addition to the two main islands of Britain and Ireland, there are various smaller islands and island groups. The hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands are west, north and northeast of Scotland respectively, while the Isle of Man sits in the Irish Sea between Britain and Ireland.
安格尔西岛(Anglesey)位于威尔士西北海岸,因为足够接近英格兰岛的缘故,它和英格兰岛以桥梁连接。怀特岛(Wight)位于英格兰南海岸,锡利群岛(Scilly Isles)座落在英格兰岛西南方。泽西岛(Jersey,)、根西岛(Guernsey)、萨克岛和奥尔德尼岛(Alderney )等海峡群岛实际上是法国的一部分,政治上属于联合王国,他们都是诺曼诸王时代的封建遗留。还有许多其他岛屿,不胜枚举。
QUOTE
Anglesey lies off the northwest coast of Wales, close enough to be connected to the mainland by a bridge. The Isle of Wight is off the south coast of England, and the Scilly Isles lie to the southwest. The Channel Islands of Jersey, Guernsey, Sark and Alderney are physically part of France; politically connected to the United Kingdom, they are all that remain of the feudal lands of the Norman kings. There are many other islands, too numerous to mention.
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GreyGate
2019-11-27, 22:29
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P9 The British Isles——Climate

Climate
气候

不列颠最著名的,莫过于它灰暗的天空和雨水。不列颠群岛的天气和它们的维度相比实际上非常温和,一部分是因为大海的温度调节功能,另一部分是因为起源于几内亚湾的北大西洋暖流。不列颠群岛是从大西洋卷起的雨荷风相遇的第一块土地,全年降雨但是很少像好莱坞电影制片商形容的那样汹涌。最潮湿的月份是春末夏初——“四月阵雨”是一个典型的不列颠式低调陈述。
QUOTE
More than anything else, Britain is famous for its grey skies and rain. The climate of the British Isles is actually fairly mild for their latitude, partly because of the temperature-moderating influence of the sea and partly because of a warm current known as the North Atlantic Drift, which originates in the Gulf of Mexico. The British Isles are the first land encountered by rain-bearing winds from the Atlantic, and rainfall is year-round but seldom as torrential as some Hollywood moviemakers like to thing. The wettest months are in late spring and early summer -- the term "April showers" is a typically British understatement.

对血族来说更重要的是白昼的长度。于诸岛南方,冬季日落大约在下午4:30,日出大约在上午8:00,而在夏天日落最晚可能在下午10:30,上午4:00就会迎来日出。而极北方,夏季夜晚更短且冬季夜晚更长。在夏季,苏格兰北方诸岛午夜也能享受阳光;由于他们的高纬度,在盛夏的那几天,太阳虽然会舔过地平线,但不会真正落下。
QUOTE
Of more significance to the Kindred population are the hours of daylight. In the southern half of the islands, winter sunset is around 4:30 p.m. , and sunrise around 8 a.m. , while in summer sunset can be as late as 10:30 p.m. and sunrise as early as 4 a.m. In the extreme north, summer nights are shorter and winter nights longer. The northern isles of Scotland experience midnight sun in the summer; owing to their high latitude, the sun grazes the horizon but does not actually set for a few days at the height of summer.

一年中的大多数时间,白天和黑夜间都有一段可观的黄昏,再加上阴天的共同作用,足以使一些更强的血族每晚延长两小时活动时间。在冬季和早春,足够极端的情况下,特定的阴天里一些血族甚至可以在午间外出(如果他们能保持不睡着),只要采取合理的预防措施,避免阳光直射在他们的皮肤上的话。因为大多数人在一年中的这个季节都会把他们自己彻底裹起来,一个该隐的后裔可以行走在凡人之中而不引起注意。
QUOTE
Throughout most of the year, there is an appreciable period of twilight between light and dark; combined with overcast weather, this weak light can enable stronger Kindred to extend their period of activity by as much as two hours per night. In winter and early spring, under dire enough circumstances, it s even possible to go out at noon on a particularly overcast day (if one can keep awake), provided that one takes reasonable precautions to avoid direct light on the skin. Since most people are thoroughly wrapped up against the weather at these times of year, a Cainite can walk among mortals without being noticed.

英国人有一种说法,他们有的是天气,而别人有的是气候。毫无疑问,不列颠诸岛的天气是不可预测的。五月和四月可以突然从忧郁的阴天变得阳光明媚,七月也可能下冰雹和冻雨。英国永无止尽讨论天气的名声便源于这种不确定性,但这是毫无根据的;但就像大多数和天气有关的事情,在其他国家看来,它有些言过其实了。
QUOTE
The British have a saying that they have weather while other people have climate, and it is certainly true that the weather of the British Isles can be unpredictable. Hail and sleet can fall in July, while a March or April day can suddenly turn from overcast gloom to brilliant sunshine. The British reputation for talking endlessly about the weather arises from this uncertainty, and is no justified; but like most things to do with the weather, it has become somewhat exaggerated in the minds of other nations.



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河伯大君
2019-11-28, 15:38
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QUOTE
吸血鬼有着自己的游戏,他们在这满是母牛的世界上玩着他们的游戏。

母牛 (IMG:style_emoticons/default/ohmy.gif)

Kine是指人类吧。

以及,欢迎翻译古早资料。 (IMG:style_emoticons/default/happy.gif)

这本书名应该叫 《A World of Darkness》,帮你改了 :)

This post has been edited by 河伯大君: 2019-11-29, 05:32
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Lord Ex
2019-11-28, 20:42
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有翻译就欢迎...不管是啥
楼主的这本古早拓展(也被叫做应许之地)是比较重要的一本,是对全球关键地域黑暗世界(主要是血族)的概况...很多重要设定都是首次出现,比如伦敦亲王Mithras,俄罗斯鬼婆,东方血族废设Gaki还有总部在埃尔多拉城堡的遁世会...

*私以为很多古早设定比再版的好,我想到了狼人,早期设定的狼人更有黑暗的味道,后面越改越接近奇幻了...
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GreyGate
2019-11-29, 00:20
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P9-2 History Roman Britain

History
历史

在那些岛屿上,历史和传统的力量是极大的,同样,岛上血族的内在潜力也很强大。只要他们愿意将他们的精力从内斗中转移出来,相互间放下过去的恩怨,着眼现在,很难说他们不能取得巨大的成就。
-Hitesh. Ventrue Justicar
QUOTE
The strength of history and tradition in those islands is immense, and the intrinsic potential of their Kindred equally powerful. If they would only divert their energies from fighting among themselves and alternately mourning the past and bemoaning the present, bury their differences and apply themselves to moving forward, there is not telling what they might accomplish.
-Hitesh. Ventrue Justicar

我们一般认为,不列颠群岛最早有文字记录的历史开始于55 BC. 尤利乌斯·凯撒(Julius Caesar)的第一次远征。早期腓尼基人的记录提到了”锡群岛(Tin Islands)”——来自中东的商人前往不列颠的西南寻找锡。不列颠群岛的史前历史可以追溯到更早的时候。
QUOTE
The written history of the British Isles is generally accepted as beginning in 55 BC, with the first expedition of Julius Caesar. Earlier Phoenician texts mention the "Tin Islands" and it is known that traders from the Middle East came to southwestern Britain for tin. The prehistory of the British Isles stretches back much further.

农耕技术大约在4000 BC.,横跨整个欧洲从地中海东方传播到不列颠群岛。 尽管有一些考古证据证明了当时的一些小规模短途移民,但这似乎证明了思想能比人本身传播得更远。约2000-1500BC,青铜时代黎明,几乎所有不列颠群岛都在耕种。考古学家认为青铜时代发生了一系列社会变动,使得统治阶级和武士阶级从新石器时代基本平等的农耕社会中崛起。约500 BC, 铁器时代初期,社会形态似乎达到了新阶段,来到不列颠的罗马人遇到了这样的情景:由精英武士庇护并管理的农牧部落。
QUOTE
Farming came to the British Isles around 4000 BC, having spread across Europe from the eastern Mediterrancan. Although there is some archaeological evidence for smallscale, short-distance migrations, it seems certain that ideas did more travelling than people. Nearly all of the British Isles were under cultivation when the Bronze Age dawned, around 2000-1500 BC. Archaeologists believe that the Bronze Age saw a series of social changes which permitted the rise of ruling classes and warrior caste from the basically egalitarian Neolithic farming communities. By the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC, society seems to have reached the from which the Romans encountered: tribes of farmers and herders, protected and ruled by a warrior elite.


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GreyGate
2019-11-29, 23:42
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P9-2 History Roman Britain

Roman Britain
罗马不列颠时期

凯撒于55 BC.和54 BC分别将两只远征队派往不列颠,但只不过是执行探索任务,并没有转变成一次入侵。奥古斯都(Augutus)更关心的是巩固和凝聚罗马帝国,而非扩展它的疆土,并且尽管疯王卡利古拉(Caligula)在不列颠远征队中做了一次尝试,这次行为当他在高卢海岸命令军队收集贝壳时也变成了一场闹剧,他把那些贝壳带回了罗马,试图将它们称为征服海洋的战利品。直到AD. 43,卡利古拉(Caligula)的继承者克劳狄乌斯(Claudius)才着手于征服不列颠。
QUOTE
Caesar’s two expeditions to Britain, in 55 and 54 BC, were little more than reconnaissance missions, and did not lead up to an invasion. Augutus was more concerned with consolidating and organizing the Roman Empire than extending its boundaries, and although the mad Emperor Caligula made one attempt at a British expedition, this ended in a farcical scene on the coast of Gaul as he ordered his troops to collect seashells, which he took back to Rome and tried to pass off as the spoils from the conquest of the ocean. It was not until AD.43 that Caligula’s successor Claudius undertook the conquest of Britain.

通过政治手段和军队的力量,东方和南方的低地很快就被罗马占领了。凯尔特的部落和王国是种难以驾驭的团体,他们的共同敌人很容易便能利用凯尔特部落间的竞争和宿怨,阻止他们联合起来对抗自己。北方和西方的战况要更麻烦一些 ,那里的地势更加险峻,部族也更加独立。曾有一段时间,凯尔特南方领袖卡拉多克(Caradoc又称卡拉塔库斯Caratacus或卡拉克塔克斯Caractacus)似乎有一次机会联合起整个不列颠,但他在一场作战中被击败了,随后被另一个部落首领出卖给了罗马。
QUOTE
The low lands of the south and east were quickly taken, some by politics and some by force of arms. The Celtic tribes and kingdoms were a fractious lot, and it was easy to play on their rivalries and feuds and prevent their uniting against the common enemy. Things were harder going in the north and west, where terrain was rougher and the tribes were more independent. For a while, the southern leader Caradoc (also known as Caratacus or Caractacus) seemed to have a chance of uniting the Britons, but he was defeated in battle and subsequently betrayed to the Romans by another tribal ruler.

对不列颠北部和西部的征服拖到了下一个世代,而且到最后也没有完成。帝国从小亚细亚招募了一个总督,他拥有大量在阿富汗山地作战的经验,并交付了征服威尔士的任务。丘陵和山地间的游击战给帝国带来了巨大的麻烦,他们满意于夷平安格尔西岛并通过一系列堡垒牵制了安格尔西岛。在北方,才华横溢的总督阿古利可拉(Agricola)可能已经到达了苏格兰岛北岸,但唯一可持续的前线是后来变成了哈德良长城的那条。
译者注:哈德良长城(Hadrian’s Wall):是一条由石头和泥土构成的横断大不列颠岛的防御工事,,由罗马帝国君主哈德良所兴建。在罗马人看来,长城以南,是受罗马教化的“文明人”,长城以北,是“野蛮人”(Barbarian))
QUOTE
The conquest of northern and western Britain took another generation, and was never fully completed. A governor was drafted in from Asia Minor, where he had had experience of fighting in the hills of Afghanistan, and given the task of conquering Wales. Guerilla warfare in the hills and mountains was too much for the Romans, who contented themselves with razing Anglesey and pinning down the coast with a chain of forts. In the noth, the talented governor Agricola may have reached the northern shores of Scotland, but the only sustainable frontier was the line of what later became Hadrian’s Wall.

自公元一世纪以来,不列颠或多或少是和平的。罗马城镇一个接一个出现(词尾-chester或-caster代表该地名起源于罗马),贸易繁荣,这个行省逐渐变得“文明”。只是北部边境断断续续发生动乱。到了三世纪末,动乱开始在欧洲全境酝酿。
QUOTE
Britain was more or less peaceful from the end of the first century AD. Roman towns sprang up (the place-name ending-chester or- caster indicates Romain origin), trade flourished, and the province gradually became “civilized.” Trouble on the northern frontier was intermittent. But by the end of the third century, trouble was brewing elsewhere in Europe.

北方的日耳曼人开始迁移:哥特人(Goths)穿过德意志地区和东部省份的边境向南推进,法兰克人(Franks)迁徙到高卢,汪达尔人(Vandals)穿过西班牙到达北非,然后又折返回西西里和意大利南部。伦巴人(Lombards)越过阿尔卑斯山进入意大利北部。撒克逊人(Saxons)开始向不列颠东海岸施压。
QUOTE
Germanic peoples from the north were on the move: Goths pushed southward across the frontiers in Germany and the Eastern provinces, Franks moved into Gaul, Vandals headed through Spain to North Africa and then doubled back to Siclly and southern Italy. Lombards pushed across the Alps into northern Italy. And Saxons began to put pressure on the eastern coast of Britain.

盎格鲁人(Angles),撒克逊人(Saxons)和朱特人(Jutes)是现今生活在北德意志地区和丹麦南部的三支日耳曼民族。他们开始突击并随后定居在罗马不列颠的东海岸。罗马制定了目光短浅的政策,以将其他满族拒之门外为代价给予了一些撒克逊人(Saxons)土地。不列颠有免费土地的消息传了出去,殖民者急剧增多。在北方,苏格兰人(Scots)从北爱尔兰迁居而来,他们在苏格兰西部定居,迫使当地的皮克特人(Picts)向东迁移,
QUOTE
The Angles, Saxons and Jutes were three Germanic peoples living in what is now northern Germany and southern Denmark. They began making raids on the eastern coast of Roman Britain, and later they came to settle. Rome adopted the short-sighted policy of giving land to some Saxons on condition that they kept others out; word got around that there was free land to be had in Britain, and settlement increased. In the north, the Scots had migrated from northern Ireland, and were forcing the native Picts eastward as they settled western Scotland.

作为一个边境省份,不列颠是罗马第一批为保护帝国其他地区而削减驻军的地区,察觉到罗马的虚弱,皮克特人(Picts)和苏格兰人(Scots)越过哈德良长城在北境劫掠。罗马位于不列颠的残存力量频发叛乱,并且有些人试图建立一个独立的不列颠帝国,然而没人能打退撒克逊的进攻。AD. 410,当地人的援助请求得到了罗马的回信,信上说不列颠从现在开始得自力更生了。就此罗马不列颠灭亡,黑暗时代开始了。
QUOTE
Being a frontier province, Britain was one of the first places stripped of troops in order to defend the rest of the Empire, and sensing Roman weakness, the Picts and Scots overran Hadrian’s Wall and ravaged the north. Remaining Roman forces in Britain mutinied repeatedly ,and there were some attempts to set up an independent Empire of Britain, but no one could hold back the Saxons. In AD 410. A request for help was answered by a letter from Rome stating that Britain must look to her own defense from now on. Roman Britain was dead, and the Dark Ages had begun.

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2019-12-02, 18:37
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P10 The Dark Ages

The Dark Ages
黑暗时代


黑暗时代,它之所以被这么称呼,一方面是因为在这个时期不列颠的罗马文明崩溃了,另一方面这个时期的历史记载出现了缺口。这成为了一个传奇的时代,不列颠在像伏提庚(Vortigern),安布罗修斯(Ambrosius)(此人可能是梅林)和奥托瑞尔斯·里欧萨马斯(Artorius Riothamus)(此人可能是亚瑟王)这样的英雄人物的带领下与汹涌而来的撒克逊人(Saxons)打了场虽败犹荣的硬仗。当撒克逊人(Saxons)占领了低地后,罗马-不列颠的族群逐渐退居北方和东方。一些不列颠人起帆前往欧洲大陆建立了不列塔尼(Brittany)省。
QUOTE
The Dark Ages are so called because of the collapse of Roman civilization in Britain, and because of the gap in written history. This became a time of legend, with leaders like Vortigern, Ambrosius (who may or may not have been Merlin) and Artorius Riothamus (who may or may not have been Arthur) fighting a losing battle against the incoming flood of Saxons. The Romano-British population was gradually pushed back into the north and west as the Saxons took the lowlands. Some Britons set sail for the continent and established the province of Brittany.

撒克逊人(Saxons)信仰异教,他们崇拜和后来维京人的神相似的神。不列颠人和罗马帝国的遗民一同转变为了基督徒,基督教就此做到了罗马没能做到的事情——征服爱尔兰。根据传说,圣帕特里克(Saint Patrick)出生在威尔士,被掠奴者带去了爱尔兰,除了驱逐蛇类外,他把整个爱尔兰的人都修成了基督徒。现在,爱尔兰开始给撒克逊人传教。在位于苏格兰西海岸的伊奥娜岛修道院和位于英格兰北海岸的林迪斯法纳岛修道院形成了传教活动的基础,到从罗马来的圣奥古斯汀使肯特人皈依的时候,爱尔兰和苏格兰传教士已经在北方取得了巨大的进展。
QUOTE
The Saxons were a pagan people, worshipping gods closely related to the later deities of the Vikings. The Britons had become Christian along with the rest of the Roman Empire and Christianity had even conquered Ireland where Rome could not – according to legend, Saint Patrick was a Welshman by birth, taken to Ireland by slave-raiders, and proceeded to convent the whole island to Christianity in addition to driving out the snakes. Now, Ireland set about converting the Saxons. Island monasteries at Iona on the west coast of Scotland and Lindisfarne on the northeast coast of England formed the bases for missionary activity, and by the time Saint Augustine came from Rome to convert the people of Kent in AD 597, Irish and Scottish missionaries had already made great advances in the noth.

在接下来的数十年里,撒克逊人——或者说英国人,他们这么称呼自己——逐渐皈依成了基督徒。传教士使用“自上而下”的方法,以统治者为目标,让统治者强迫臣民信仰基督教。许多后来成为巫术和妖精传说的东西,其实都是撒克逊人改信基督教前,他们过去的信仰留下的一些混乱的民间记忆。
QUOTE
Over the next few decades, the Saxons – or English, as they called themselves – were gradually converted to Christianity. Missionaries used a “top down” approach. Targeting rulers and having them enforce Christianity on their subjects. Much of what later became witchcraft and faerie lore was a garbled folk-memory of pre-Christian Saxon belief.

英格兰在这个时期由许多不同的王国组成。最著名的是极北的诺森比亚王国(Northumbria),中部的莫西亚(Mercia)王国和在中南部地区的威塞克斯(Wessex)王国。肯特(Kent),埃塞克斯(Essex)和萨克斯 (Sussex)这些更小的国家一般都支持威塞克斯(Wessex)王国。在西北,撒克逊的坎布里亚(Cumbria)王国与不列颠仅存的,小小的埃尔麦特王国接壤。东方安格利亚(Anglia)的土地主要是芦苇沼泽,很明显没什么人住在这里——盎格鲁(Anglo)人给这片土地命了名。
QUOTE
England at this time consisted of a number of distinct kingdoms. The most prominent were Northumbria in the northeast, Mercia in the Midlands and Wessex in the southcentral region. Kent, Essex and Sussex ere smaller kingdoms who generally sided with Wessex, and in the northwest the Saxon Kingdom of Cumbria bordered on the tiny surviving British kingdom of Elmet The lands of East Anglia were mainly reed marsh, and apparently only sparsely settled-– by the angles, who gave them their name.
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Time is now: 2019-12-11, 13:09