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> M&T 3.0 开发日志 #18 - 政治, M&T 3.0 Dev Diary #18 - Politics
Trihex
2020-11-17, 20:54
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## M&T 3.0 Dev Diary #18 - Politics

### **M&T 3.0 开发日志 #18 - 政治**

**FireKahuna, Nov 15, 2020**

Welcome back from another dev diary drought, to a new diary covering a long awaited part of the 3.0 experience. My dev handle is FireKahuna, and I’ll be introducing you to the realisation of my submod from 2017, Path to Modernity in the form of 3.0’s political systems. While the content of these systems are still subject to change, the systems themselves will be my final iteration of politics in 3.0.

欢迎大家再一次走出日志大饥荒,这里是一篇崭新的日志,其中将会介绍3.0中备受期待的一部分。我是FireKahuna,我将为你介绍3.0的政治系统;自从2017年,我就一直计划着把它做成「通向现代之路」submod,现在则把它做到了3.0的本体里。虽然说这个系统可能还要做一些内容上的修改,你个IP系统本身已经是我敲定的3.0政治系统最终版了。

Politics in 3.0 finds its roots in a core idea that’s central to its tagline, the path from the old order to modernity, the progression of society as it transitions to something new across the early modern era. The system is designed as such to represent two ends of a wide spectrum, two alternate visions of how society should run. In the old order, society is run by elites directly, governing large tracts of land, ruling urban centres, dominating the realm. In the new order, society revolves around an administration, around government and the state, and elites instead attempt to influence and control this entity that has no theoretical end to the domain it can encompass. It is a duality between the elites and the state, and the power to realise their vision for the realm. All realms in 3.0 start somewhere along this spectrum, leaving the player the chance to lead the realm in their own desired direction.

3.0政治系统的核心理念就是它的标题:这是从旧秩序通向现代性的一条道路,社会不断进步,在现代早期的这段时间里逐渐推陈出新。从设计上来说,这个系统的功能就是表现一道光谱的遥远两端,对于社会该如何运作的两种不同观点。在旧秩序下,社会由精英阶层直接运作,他们管理着巨量的土地,掌控着中心城市,统治着整个国家。在新秩序下,社会的核心是一套行政体系,它围绕政府和国家运作,而精英会转而试着去影响并控制这个理论上无远弗届的行政体系。这是精英和政府的二元,也就是他们如何通过权力来在国家之中实现各自愿景的二元。在3.0中,所有的国家都会从这个光谱的某一处启程,随后,玩家便有机会可以将国家导向他们意想之中的方向。

As for what’s changed, the answer yet again is almost everything. Politics in 2.5 was synonymous with the Privilege system and the Estates, national political actors that shaped your nation based on their power and ability to influence the realm. 3.0 doesn’t abandon these core ideas, instead evolving them into a larger and more systemic design. It is worth noting that the systems here have been written from scratch as have all systems in 3.0. No 2.5 code has been used to create these systems. For this diary, we’ll start with familiar concepts first and foremost.

那你可能就要问了,具体有什么变化呢?答案还是和过去差不多:几乎一切都有所改变。2.5里的政治系统其实就是特权系统和阶层系统的代名词;在过去的版本中,它们是国内的政治参与者,用他们的权力和能力来影响国家,塑造国家的形象。3.0没有抛弃这个核心理念,而是将它们向着更加系统化,更加庞大的设计方向进行重制。值得一提的是,3.0的所有系统都是从零开始写的。新的系统中,2.5可是连一行代码都不剩了。在这篇日志中,我将会从大家最为熟悉的概念开始介绍。

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### The Elites 精英

While 2.5 introduced the Estates, 3.0 now replaces them with a new iteration, the Elites. The Elites are the backbone of all societies, inherently extractive, the extent of which is determined by the constraints placed upon them by society. While at worst they can bleed society dry and hold back the progress of humanity, even in their worst incarnation they still uphold society as is, investing in and protecting the core infrastructure that keeps society at float. The most significant change is that Elites are provincially based, and their national representation is a composite of the provinces. As such, in every province Elites have wealth, power and loyalty, all of which can shift independently to other provinces, affecting the national average accordingly.

我们在2.5里引入了阶层,而在3.0中,精英成为了新版的阶层。精英是所有社会的骨架,并会根据社会对他们所施加的限制强弱来抽取社会的资源。虽然说,在最糟糕的情况下,他们会对社会敲骨吸髓,成为人文进步的枷锁,但就算在这种最糟糕的情况下,他们也仍然会支撑起社会组织,进行投资活动,并维护社会运作所需的核心基础设施。最大的一项变化是,精英是基于省份而存在的,他们在各个省份中保有势力,而省份势力综合起来才是他们在国内的势力总量。在每个省份中,精英都会拥有个别的财富、权力和忠诚度,不会与其他省份同步变化;每个省份中的精英都共同影响着全国范围的综合平均值。

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The most important resource Elites have is Power, replacing Influence in 2.5. Power is not mutually exclusive, existing without competition, each elite is able to achieve 100% simultaneously (excluding Clan power, but more on that later). 3.0 includes the return of familiar estates once more as Elites, including a single combined Nobles class in the countryside, the Burghers in urban centers, the Clergy across the temporal domain and the Clans across the entirety of society. Power represents their ability to realise their own agenda in their given domain, including their own taxation and the levying of their subjects into their own armed forces, linearly multiplying the effects of any and all abilities including the dues they charge subjects within their domain, their willingness to invest in infrastructure and armed forces, their impact on corruption and more.

精英名下最重要的一项资源就是**权力 Power**,它代替了2.5中的影响力。权力并不是一项互斥的数值,各种精英的权力之间没有相互竞争,所有精英的权力可以同时到达100%(除了**氏族 Clan**阶层,不过后面再细说)。3.0中,大家所熟悉的各种阶层大都变成了精英:乡村之间有一个单独的贵族精英阶层(译注:也就是没有大贵族小贵族了),城市中心则有市民,教士管理着俗界产业,氏族则分布在整个社会之内。权力代表这些精英在其领域内实现愿景的能力,比如对他们自己的附庸与下属进行独立的课税,或进行征役来充实其武装力量。权力会以线性方式影响精英的所有行为,包括向其附庸与下属收取税金的能力,其投资基础设施和武装力量的意愿,其对腐败的影响,等等。

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The sources of Power for an Elite are the laws of the realm, and their wealth in a given province, with the impact of wealth itself shaped by laws. While these sources represent the resting gravity that Power will drift towards, at times their actual Power level may well exceed their gravity. When this difference remains for an extended period of time, they will build ‘floating’ resting gravity, essentially a pool of Power that will with time be equivalent to that prolonged difference between gravity and the current power. This pool is called Entrenched Power, and is often the final source of gravity when the laws shift from under an Elite and their traditional power fades away. While this Entrenched pool of resting gravity will decline with time, the realm will likely have to take action to truly break the power of an Elite for good. In addition, Loyalty returns as a variable for each Elite in 3.0, with a new system for resting loyalty and the speed of change.

精英的权力来源是国家的法律和他们在各自省份内的财富,而财富能起到多大作用也同样受法律影响。这些权力的来源会为权力设定一个稳定值,实际权力会逐渐趋向这个值。也就是说,他们的权力有时会比稳定值高出不少。当这个差距维持一定时间后,精英就会形成一个「浮动」的暂时稳定值,可以理解为一个权力的缓冲区,随着时间流逝,这个缓冲区会趋向实际稳定值和当前权力的延时差值。这部分权力名为**顽固权力 Entrenched Power**,在法律更迭,精英的传统权力日薄西山之时,它常常会成为权力稳定值的最终来源。虽然顽固权力所带来的暂时稳定值会随着时间衰减,国家很可能还是要采取一些手段来真正地把精英权力打压下去。还有就是,3.0中的每个阶层也会有忠诚度,我们给忠诚度的数值和变化率也做了一个新的系统。

### Clans 氏族

The Tribal estate of 2.5 returns in a new form in 3.0, in the form of Clans. Before a realm has stratification into Nobles, Burghers and the Clergy, there are the Clans, representing a pre-stratified society where loyalty lies first and foremost with one’s clan. Clan Power as such is functionally an override for all other forms of power, a cap. While Elite power is not mutually exclusive, if Clan power is say, 40%, then the power of any given Elite cannot exceed 60%. Clans collect a simple tribute from the entire population scaled by their Power, and pay from that a tribute to the realm.

2.5的部落阶层在3.0中亦有体现,但其面目已焕然一新,现在它变成了氏族。在国家形成贵族、市民和教士等阶层之前,舞台上的主角是氏族,它代表着尚未阶层化的社会,在这样的社会之中,忠诚离不开个体的氏族关系。氏族权力会覆盖其他精英的权力,也就是说,会影响其他精英的权力上限。精英权力是不互斥的;但是在有氏族的情况下——举个例子,如果氏族权力是40%,那么其他精英的权力就不能超过60%。氏族会依照其权力,向所有人口简单地收取一份贡金,然后再从这份贡金中拿出一部分献给国家。

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It is important to note that Clans are not Nomads, but instead are a concept applying to the population at large. A society without clans can still have nomads, as Nomads in 3.0 are an economic class. Aside from simple tribute, a society with clans can mobilise en-masse in a scale only matched by a truly bureaucratic, modern military, and can tap into Nomadic manpower in a scale Genghis would approve of. The clans have their benefits, yet fundamentally they hold society back, with major penalties for the realm in comparison to their more stratified and progressive neighbors.

有一点很重要:氏族不等于游牧民,它是你治下全体人口范畴上的一个概念。一个没有氏族的社会也可以有游牧民,因为3.0里的游牧民是一个经济阶层。除开简单的贡金之外,一个拥有氏族的社会还可以大规模地动员人口,其动员能力只有那些真正具有官僚制度的现代化军队能够媲美,它能动用的游牧人力规模之大,连成吉思汗也要褒美一番。氏族自有好处,但根本上来说,它们会拖慢社会进步;相对于那些更为阶层化,更加进步的邻人,它们也会为国家带来巨大的惩罚。

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### Property and Tax 资产和税赋

Every Elite exists as both a political actor, and an economic Class within the 3.0 model, and as such simply use their Class wealth pool for all political activity. There is no floating national wealth pool akin to 2.5, with the value shown in an Elite’s national UI simply a composite of their provincial wealth across the realm. Elites utilise this pool for traditional economic behaviour, such as investing and maintaining infrastructure and property, as well as consumption of life, comfort and luxury goods. The only Elite without their own independent wealth pool are the Clans, who share the Nobles as their economic Class, representing the transition from Chief to Aristocrat/Noble without a major shift in wealth.

在3.0的模型中,精英们不仅是政治的参与者,同时也是经济阶层,他们会用他们的小金库来进行一切政治活动。3.0摈弃了2.5那样的全国性浮动财富;现在,精英的国内UI中(译注:就是阶层互动里那个显示xx阶层的状况,访问贵族宫廷等等)所显示的,是他们在各个省份中财富的总和。精英会使用这个金库来进行一般的经济活动,比如投资、维持基建和资产,以及消费生活必需品、舒适消费品和奢侈品。唯一一个没有独立金库的精英阶层是氏族,他们在经济阶层方面等同于贵族,这样可以在表现酋长转化为特权阶级/贵族的同时,不至于引起巨大的财富变化。

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As such, Elites can gain wealth in three primary ways. The first is through work, best exemplified in the merchant activity of Burghers as the sole class that can work the Commerce slot in a given province or the role of the Clergy in education. The second as an economic class is Property, with Elites more often than not owning the lion's share of Districts and Resources across the realm, providing significant income and a notable power base. The third is through their own taxes and dues they are allowed to levy from the population, often based on their property share but primarily determined by Power.

精英有三种获得财富的主要手段。第一种手段就是工作。最好的例子就是,作为唯一一个可以在省份的商业槽位工作的阶层,市民会成为商人;又比如教士会在教育领域工作。作为经济阶层,第二种手段是通过资产获得财富。在国家上下的省份之中,阶层常常会是区划和资源的主要所有者,这会为它们带来大量的收入和可观的权力基础。第三种手段是依照许可收取私务税收和贡金,来从人口当中汲取财富。这一项收入常常基于其资产份额,但根本上还是由权力所决定。

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The influence of the Elites over taxation and dues is a powerful means for them to maintain power and standing. Yet the needs of the Elites are often at a detriment to the common folk, leaving them more destitute and unable to spend for the need of paying excessive dues to their local overlords or serving in their obligated armies. The end of Elite power will mean an end to these common obligations, yet it is imperative that the state build an alternative to fund infrastructure, uphold order, prevent banditry and build a military that can protect the realm.

精英在税收和贡金上的影响力是他们维持权力和立场的有力手段。然而,精英的需求常常会损害普通百姓的利益,让后者变得更加贫困;他们无法挤出生活所需的开支,或是因为受当地领主苛捐杂税的重压,或是因为被迫服军役。终结精英权力也就意味着废除这些旧有义务,但国家政府势必要建立起一套替代体制,为基础设施提供资金,维持社会秩序,防止盗匪祸乱,并建立起一支足以保家卫国的军队。

### Manpower 人力

3.0 includes a fully fledged manpower system introduced by KJH that integrates into both the economy and politics. Manpower draws population from the fields and onto the battlefield, increasing mobilisation at an economic cost. Manpower draws from the population of the realm, with any change in the national manpower level reflected directly in a realm’s population. Elites use their power, wealth and the laws of the realm to recruit a population under their banner, equip them through purchases in the economy of supplies and military products, and then continuously pay their goods-based upkeep and maintenance. They provide these levies to the realm in the form of manpower, with the composite skill based on their training leaving the state with either a bonus or penalty to their military’s effectiveness.

KJH为3.0实现了一套羽翼丰满的人力系统,它与经济和政治系统水乳交融。人口会离开田野,成为人力,然后被投放到战场上,动员人口因此会产生经济上的代价。人力是从国家人口中征召而来,人力水平的变化会直接反映到国家人口上。精英会运用他们的权力、财富,依照国家法律,将一部分人口征召到他们的旌旗之下,从经济系统中购买补给和军需品,将他们装备起来,并持续支付这种基于货物的维护成本和相关费用。他们会将这部分兵员以人力的形式提供给国家,并根据他们的训练程度给出一个综合能力修正,依照其对应的军队效率有好有坏。

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*Army Professionalism in 3.0 has innate inertia, with training providing a counter to this inherent decay.*
*军队职业度在3.0中自带衰减,而军事训练可以逆转衰减。*

A realm can rely on multiple forms of manpower at one time, either utilising feudal and urban levies or transitioning to a fully bureaucratic military paid entirely by the state. While these armies can result in a more professional and effective military core, the cost of maintaining such an army will require significant reform to ensure sufficient taxation and provision of goods.

一个国家可以同时依赖多种人力来源:她可以借助封建和城市兵员,也可以转而倚仗一支发达官僚制度管理下的,完全由国家出资的军队。作为军事的核心,后者会更加职业化,更加高效,但要维持这样的一支军队,就要用巨量的改革来保障充足的税收和货物补给。

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### Privileges 特权

Returning from 2.5 in design if not implementation, every Elite enjoys a set of Privileges according to their historical setup. Every Elite has a traditional role in society, maintaining infrastructure and buildings, serving in the military or supporting the economy through trade and charity. This role cannot be maintained in purity forever, and a corruption of their place in society's natural order is inevitable. Privileges as such are the corruption of an Elite’s expected role, granting them the power to ignore their responsibilities and abuse their given domain for their own benefit.

2.5的特权再次登场,但实际机制有所不同。依照历史沿革,每种精英都会享有一系列的特权。在社会之中,这些精英都扮演着一些传统角色,他们会维护基建和建筑,在军队中服役,或是通过贸易和慈善事业支撑经济。这些传统角色不可能千古不变,社会的自然规律也会让这些职能无可避免地产生腐败。这一系列特权就是阶层的社会角色所带来的腐败,让他们可以无视权力所带来的责任,让他们利用自己权能所及的领域为自己谋好处。

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Privileges are often the means to enter the good graces of an Elite in a time of reform and change, exchanging shifts in rights for assurances in the form of guarantees of the old order. These Privileges are not always strictly negative affairs, with subjective benefits in the right context and situation. Great care is required however when granting Privileges, as time normalises their existence and revocation becomes a risky endeavor.

在变革的时代,特权常常是与精英打好关系所需的常用手段,你可以保证延续旧秩序来换取**权利 Rights**的变更。这些特权并不总是完全的坏事,在某些特定的情况下,也能提供一些或值或不值的好处。当然,在赋予特权时,一定要三思而后行,因为时间会让这些特权变成常理,此时如果想撤回特权,就要逆水行舟,承担巨大的风险。

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### Rights 权利

For one to progress society, the fundamental rules and laws of the realm that govern society will need to change. If Privileges are the leaves, then Rights are the branches, the various paths a society can progress along the road to modernity. Rights shape society, determining the abilities of Elites and the State, enabling and disabling taxes and dues, changing the nature of the military or shaping the economy itself. As the fundamental structure of the realm, the act of reforming, of changing Rights is a costly affair, both in terms of the stability of the realm, and the political resources required to realise change.

要想让社会进步,就需要改变国家治理社会的根本法则和法律。如果说特权是树叶,那么权利就是树枝,它们是社会在通向现代之路上的众多路线。权利塑造了社会,它决定了精英和政府的能力,可以藉由它启用或禁用税课和贡金,改变军队的本质,或让经济改头换面。作为国家最根本的架构,改变权利,或者说,改革,可谓花费繁巨;它不仅需要消磨国家的稳定性,更要耗去实施改变所需的政治资源。

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Elites can be both the beneficiary and target of reform, as every right exists along a linear scale, one end representing a more feudal and elite driven society, and the other representing a more administrative, centralised, and commoner-led realm. To change a realm’s Rights, the realm will first have to be conditioned for its enactment, with certain requirements that must be met before change can be realised. Rights more often than not also require certain privileges to be revoked in order to progress forward, some corruptions of the old order being too great to ignore.

在改革方面,精英可以对改革有所助益,亦可能成为改革的目标。每一种权利都是一条线性路径,一端是更加封建,更倾向于让精英运作的社会;另一端则是更依靠国家治理,更集权,更倾向于普通人领航的社会。要改变权利,国家首先要满足一系列改革条件,好让这些改变落到实处。很多时候,要让权利进步,更需要撤回一些特定的特权:旧秩序下的一些腐败现象实在是不容忽视。

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If one can meet these requirements, there are no restrictions on the scale and direction of reform. With the right resources, significant leaps can be made for those willing to bear the consequences of great change, and this change can be for a more modern, commoner-centric society, or for a truly Elite-driven realm that realises the old order in a way never seen before.

满足这些条件后,改革不会有规模和方向上的限制。有了相应的资源后,想要承受改变带来的一系列结果的玩家便可以迈出重大的改革步伐:这些改变可能会把国家变成一个更加现代,更以大众为中心的社会;抑或是让国家变成一个真正的精英之国,把旧秩序伸扬到一个超乎前人的程度。

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### Interactions 交互

Change requires cooperation across the realm, from a complacent populace to loyal and supportive Elites. Returning in 3.0 are Interactions, this time with the provincial Elites instead of a single national entity. Interactions have been significantly expanded upon, with more varied and consequential interactions for each Elite, drawing upon the realm or the state for support and change. Interactions are the primary means for the realm to support or weaken the Elites, and a central method of leveraging the Elites for the subjective benefit of the realm.

从心安意平的大众,到忠诚而支持国家的精英,改变需要全国上下的一致配合。在3.0中,交互依然存在,但对象从全国性的巨型阶政治实体变成了各个省份内的精英。我们大幅扩展了交互选项,为每种精英都加入了更多样,后果更加有影响力的交互,让你可以在国内广泛地寻求支持,造成改变。交互是国家支持或削弱精英的主要手段,也是让精英们为国效力的核心方式。

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Multiple interactions can be enacted provided a realm has the stability and political resources necessary to enact change, allowing significant shifts in relations and power to occur in a short period of time. Risk is subjective, and it will be your call when deciding how much change the realm can endure in a given period. These interactions can include attempts to grant or strip away the Power of a class, provide them with arrangements, gifts and resources to placate them or efforts to use their loyalty as a resource to gain favours, such as increased levies, legitimacy or other forms of payment.

只要国家有足够的稳定性和政治资源来促成改变,就可以执行种类繁多的交互,在短时间内大幅度改变关系和权力。风险的高低需要你自己去评估,国家在一段时间内能承受多少改变当由玩家定夺。在这些互动中,有些是授予某个阶层权力,或从阶层那里剥夺权力;或是为他们做特别的安排,赠予礼物和资源,施以怀柔;抑或是利用它们的忠诚来谋取好处,比如增加征召兵员数目,提升正统性,或是让它们提供其他种类的回报。

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A prominent interaction introduced as well in 3.0 are Property Grants and Expropriation. The realm can grant land to those they favour (including the Peasantry and Residents) and expropriate land from whomever they please. Even if an Elite has their Privileges revoked and their Rights shifted in an unfavourable direction, Property remains a powerful means to uphold their wealth (and as such their Power), and can be a point of pain when attempting to truly remove an Elite from society at large. Time lends favour to accumulation and enrichment, and fighting time itself is no easy endeavour.

3.0中,我们加入了一项重要的互动:授予资产和征用资产。国家可以向她偏好的人群授予土地(包括农民和居民)(译注:居民 Residents是相对于市民 Burghers的一个概念,经济地位较为低下的城市人),也可以应其所需,向某个群体征用土地。就算精英的特权被尽数剥夺,权利日渐衰退,他们手中的资产仍可成为十分有力的财富来源(同样也会维持他们的权力),要真正从社会层面铲除一类精英会是十分痛苦的一个过程。时间让财富不断积累聚敛,要与时间对抗可不是什么轻松的活计。

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The Elites as shown enjoy a comprehensive system of power and wealth, taxing whom they please, building power and using it to oppose unfavourable reform and gain new privileges to uphold their standing. Yet there is one actor who can fundamentally shift the entire balance of the realm, if not its very essence.

如上所述,精英有一套完备的权力和财富系统,他们可以横征暴敛,筑起权力的高楼,用权力对抗陷他们于不利的改革,攫取特权来稳固他们的地位。然而,舞台上还有一个角色,它可以从根本上改变一个国家的整体平衡,甚至能改变她的本质。

### The State 政府

New to 3.0 is an alternative actor uniquely attuned to the needs and desires of the realm, the Bureaucrats, an alternative Elite with their own unique form of power, loyalty, property ownership and wealth. While not synonymous with the state itself, the Bureaucrats provide the realm with a greater capacity to realise all-encompassing change, and an alternative to the traditional order of the Elites. Through taxation, influence and the support of the commoners, a realm can forge a loyal and effective government. Concepts that follow the state include Administration, Bureaucratisation and the dynamics of Centralisation and Decentralisation.

在3.0中,官僚是一项崭新的元素,它是一种与众不同的精英,有其独特的权力、忠诚度、资产所有权和财富;它代表了国家本身的需求和欲望。官僚并不是国家本身的同义词:通过官僚,国家可以掌握更强大的能力,去实现全面的变革;它也为国家提供了精英治下传统秩序的替代品。通过课税、影响力,并支持平民,国家可以铸就一套忠诚而高效的政府机构。与政府相关的概念包括治理、官僚化,还有集权和放权的动态变化。

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### State Reach 政府掌控

Power for the state finds its own unique form in State Reach. This is not the bureaucratisation of the realm, or the strength of the administration. State Reach is the degree that a province is dependent on the idea of an administration, the degree that provincial politics revolve around government. With no State Reach, domains are ruled by the Elites, and the state has no real ability to shape local politics. This often means the absence of developed forms of taxation, extreme variations of Elite dues and taxes on the populace, and minimal state investment. High levels of State Reach will co-opt the various domains of the Elites, constraining the impact of their worst impulses while empowering the state to enact their own laws, taxes and vision of the realm. In response, the Elites will attempt to co-opt the realm, using this new, central political body to their advantage.

政府的权力有着独特的形式,被称为政府掌控。这并不是国家的官僚化程度,也不是治理的强度。政府掌控是省份对治理体系的依赖度,是省份围绕政府运转的程度。如果某个省份中不存在政府掌控,那这个省份就是在精英的治下,而国家并不能从实际上改变当地的政治。这通常意味着,该省份不能执行更为发达的税种,精英会对省份中的人口施以重税,国家的投资也极少。高政府掌控则意味着对精英领域的指派,在最坏的可能性下限制精英的冲动行为之后果,也让国家可以在当地执行其法律,进行征税,将国家愿景施加于省份。作为回应,精英会试图与国家合作,利用这一新式的集权化政治体制来为自己谋取好处。

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### Taxation 税收

The value of the realm is literally measured in wealth, with development equivalent to the total economic value of the province. As such, there is a new means for the state to tap that wealth and gain revenue from their subjects. The most common form of taxation is an Obligation, in the form of Clan Tribute or Feudal Dues and Levies in a more stratified society. This includes cheaper management of Crown Property, providing feudal realms with revenue even without an administrative apparatus.

国家的价值终归是以财富来衡量的,发展度则是省份的总体经济产出。现在,政府有办法汲取这份财富,从它的下属单位中获得收益。最普遍的税种是**义务 Obligation**,比如氏族贡金,或在更加阶层化的社会中的封建贡金。这样管理王冠资产的成本较为低廉,就算没有治理机器运作,封建国家也可以获取收益。

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As discussed in a previous dev diary, Taxes cost variable amounts of mana, based on the population, land size and other factors in a province. These taxes can be manually set, partially delegated or fully automated across the realm, with variable input mana depending on the state’s desire, with upsides to both micromanagement and macro delegation depending on a realm’s size and player ability to allocate resources. Delegating is no compromise, and is a highly valid option commonly used already in 3.0 testing.

正如过去日志中提到过的那样,税收会耗费不同数量的点数,花费基于人口规模、土地面积和其他相关的省份要素。这些税收可以手动设置,部分委派或完全自动化,依照政府的意愿,你可以投入一定数量的点数(来进行税收);根据国家的大小和玩家收集资源的能力,微操和全局委派皆受益颇多。委派并非妥协,它是一个非常有效的选项,在3.0的测试当中已经被广泛使用了。

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With the right amount of State Reach, and reforms that grant new Rights enabling more expansive taxation, significant state revenue can be earned from the realm. This includes a shift away from Obligations and Dues towards real, administrative taxation. While this shifts the cost of taxation away from tax farming and towards higher levels of real wages, the gains from bureaucratisation can be highly lucrative depending on a players corruption and tax efficiency determined by Rights and Privileges.

只要政府掌控达到要求,改革允许征收进阶税种,国家可以从自身当中获取巨量的财富。这个过程也包括从义务和贡金转向真正的,通过治理收取的税赋。虽然税收成本会从包税转向更为高昂的实际薪资,但在权利和特权的作用下,只要玩家国家的腐败度和税收效率达到一定程度,官僚化的收益可谓相当有利。

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### Local Corruption 本地腐败

The realisation of a loyal administration is contrary to the desires of the Elites, leaving them vulnerable to taxation and waning influence. Elites will attempt to counter this through corruption, co-opting the state by translating their local power into per-province local corruption. Corruption is essentially inverse loyalty for the Bureaucrats, and its level acts as a multiplier on state revenue from taxes, subtracting that amount from state revenue and leaving it as a pool of wealth siphoned by the Elites, distributed based on their comparative power. The ability for an Elite to turn Power into Corruption can be influenced by local factors, including their level of Autonomy or various provincial modifiers.

忠诚的治理体系与精英的诉求会相互冲突,后者会承担税赋压力,其影响力也会下降。精英会试图通过腐败来对抗这一趋势,通过将他们的本地权力转化为每个省份独立的本地腐败来利用政府。本地腐败基本上就是官僚阶层的反向忠诚度,其数值会以乘算形式影响税收收入,将一部分本该进入国库的财富装进精英的腰包,再按他们在当地的权力比例分赃。本地的各种因素都会影响精英将权力转化为腐败度的能力,包括本地自治度,还有很多其他的省份修正。

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New laws and edicts will be required to reduce the role of the Elites in local administration. In the form of Meritocratic reform, replacing Elites with loyal commoners and introducing new systems of administration that reduce the scope for corrupt activity. A simpler alternative is to curb the worst impulses of the Elites and win their favour, maintaining high loyalty and as such reducing their willingness to convert their local power into local corruption.

国家需要出台新的法律和政策来削弱精英在地方上的治理职能。这就是**贤能行政 Meritocratic**改革线,它会将精英替换为忠诚的平民,并引入新的治理系统,减少腐败行为的规模。或者你也可以采取一些更简单的手段,抑制住精英的险恶冲动,赢得他们的青睐,维持高水平的忠诚度,以此减少他们将本地权力转化为腐败的意愿。

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### State Corruption 国家腐败度

If local corruption is the perversion of local administration via the Elites, State Corruption is the perversion of the central administration itself. This corruption will increase the amount of resources needed to effect change, and will trickle down into the provinces over time, corrupting the realm as a whole. One major source of corruption are advisors, able to translate their influence into power to enrich themselves and their friends. The other most significant form of corruption is an absence of Executive Authority.

如果说本地腐败度是当地治理体系被精英操弄的程度,那么国家腐败度就是中央行政机关本身被渗透的程度。这一种腐败会提高造成有效改变所需的资源,还会逐渐向省份中渗透,从整体上腐蚀国家。顾问是主要的腐败来源之一,他们能利用他们的权势来为自己和亲朋好友牟取利益。另一个主要来源则是执行权威。

### Executive Authority 执行权威

The ruler is not the realm, a lesson EU4 has as of yet failed to learn. New and central to 3.0, Executive Authority is an alternative system for ruler stats and mana generation, creating a new backbone for the skills of a ruler based on the dichotomy of institutionalist and absolutist rule. Every realm will need to make a fundamental choice, a choice between enabling the likes of the Sun King of France or Hammurabi of Babylon, or avoiding the worst excesses of their potentially incapable and negligent offspring. Absolutism is a compromise, accepting the highs with the lows, risking the state to empower the executive at all costs. The alternative is to invest not in individuals with institutional roles, but in institutions composed of individuals. When power is invested in institutions themselves, a realm builds a bedrock to stand on, a reliable and consistent form of rule that curbs the power and potential brilliance of individuals to protect the realm from those who could lead it astray.

统治者并不等于国家,EU4到现在都没把这一课学到脑子里。执行权威是3.0中新加入的系统,也是一大核心系统,它可以改变统治者的属性和点数获取,基于机构官员和专制统治的二分法来为统治者的能力提供坚实的架构。每个国家都要作出一项基础的抉择:是要让诸如法兰西太阳王或巴比伦的汉谟拉比之类的统治者发挥其所有能力,还是要避免他们弱智无能的后代造成的灾难性局面。专制主义是一种妥协;它能享受高峰,也要承受低谷,让国家承担一切风险,只为让统治者获得滔天权势。而如果权力在于机构,那么一个国家就能奠定其持久伫立的基石,这种统治方式会压下那些天赋异禀的奇才统治者的能力,来避免那些弱智把国家搞得偏离正轨。

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In terms of the in-game realisation of this dichotomy, 3.0 introduces Executive Authority, a system of power balanced between Ruler Authority and Institutional Authority, each pulling the realm towards their own extremes. High Ruler Authority more directly translates the ruler’s stats to the final Executive Power output, distributed according to a ruler’s abilities, as is tradition in EU4. High Institutional Authority however normalises a rulers skills to a more even distribution amongst the types, while pulling a ruler’s skill towards a 4/4/4 ruler. Institutional Authority as such provides a more consistent and reliable Executive Power output more distributed amongst essential types, at the cost of tempering powerful rulers ability to lead the realm to new highs.

为了在游戏中表现出这种二分法,3.0引入了执行权威,这个系统需要你在统治者权威和机构权威间权衡,两者都会将国家拖向一种极端。较高的统治者权威会让统治者的能力更直接地转化为执行点数,依照统治者的能力进行分配,就和原版EU4一样。而较高的机构权威会淡化统治者的个人能力,每种点数的产出会变得更为平均,最终会趋近于一个4/4/4的统治者。因此,机构权威会牺牲那些强大统治者的能力,而提供更加持久,更加可靠,更加平均的执行点数产出。

(译注:执行点数就是通常说的点数。其实原版里点数全名叫君主点数,不过这里是通过执行权威/执行者获取,而非单独通过君主获取,所以就改了个名。呃大概是这样吧())

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The absence of Executive Authority, or a level of Executive Power that is not equivalent to the maximum of 18 is considered a vacuum of power at the executive level, represented as a massive surge in state corruption exponential to the proximity of Executive Power to 0. Avoiding this vacuum is paramount to the health and stability of the realm, as this corruption will increase the political cost of action and trickle down into the provinces, as well as creating space for key political actors to fill this void.

执行权威的缺失,或者说,执行点数的总产出达不到6/6/6君主等级的话,就会在执行层面产生权力真空,具体在游戏中的表现就是产生大量的腐败,执行点数越接近0,这个腐败就越高,而且是以指数级别增长的。避免权力真空是让国家保持健康稳定发展的至上要求,因为腐败会增加政治行动所花费的资源,而且还会向省份渗透,给某些重量级人物攫取权力提供了可乘之机。

### Factions 派系

While the Elites represent the provincial distribution of power amongst a realm’s powerbrokers, Factions are their governmental representation, their incarnation in the central governing body of the realm. Elites and Factions are functionally independent, yet correlated in their influence and impact. While Elites use concepts of Loyalty and Power within their domains, Factions enjoy relations between each other and the realm itself, while competing for a share of influence within the central government. This influence is primarily built upon their standing within the realm according to their power, but can shift and enjoy new resting points based on state action, advisors and various country modifiers.

精英作为国家的权力代理人,代表着省份内的权力分配;在国家的中央行政机构体系当中,他们的存在则以派系的形式体现。从根本上来说,派系和精英是相互独立的,但是他们的影响力和产生的效应会互相关联。在各自的领域当中,精英有着忠诚度和权力等等概念;而各个派系则存在相互的好感度,以及对国家的好感度,并且会在中央政府里争夺影响力。这一影响力首先来自于他们在国家内部的权力基础,但是也会受政府行为、顾问和各种国家修正影响,产生新的稳定值。

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The role of Factions as such is to promote an Elite’s interest in the central government, as well as supporting the legitimacy of the executive, provided they hold the realm in high standing. Legitimacy in 3.0 as such is now dependent on the support of the various Factions of the realm, filtered through their relations, their influence and the power they hold as Elites in the provinces. A Faction without provincial backing, will provide minimal legitimacy gain, while a balance of power amongst Factions with powerful Elites can provide significant support for the executive. This can be summarised as Legitimacy gain per Faction = ‘Faction relations’ * ‘Faction influence’ * ‘Elite Power’. Aside from supporting the executive, Factions also use their influence to either block or enable various Rights that either subvert or support their interests. The realm can empower new Factions through interactions and the promotion of various advisors, risking their own legitimacy to create a supportive power base for new, unconventional Rights, while using their own political influence to break the influence of Factions that oppose the realm’s interests.

派系的作用是在中央政府中促进精英利益的实现;如果他们与国家站在一起,还能支持执行者的正统性。3.0中的正统性会依赖于国内派系的支持,会受其好感度、影响力和对应精英的省份权力所影响。一个没有省份支持的派系只会提供很少的正统性;而如果各大派系的权势较为平衡,精英权力深远,派系就能为执行者提供巨量的支持。总结一下就是,每个派系所提供的正统性 = 「派系好感度」\*「派系影响力」\*「精英权力」。除了支持执行者之外,派系还能用他们的影响力来阻止或允许一些权利改革,全看改革是否合乎他们的利益。国家可以通过互动来扶持一个新兴的派系,也能通过各种顾问来施加影响;她可以冒着丢失正统性的风险来为新的,与传统相悖的权利铺平道路,用其自身的政治影响力来打破那些阻碍国家利益的派系。

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### Advisors 顾问

The realm often cannot support its interests with the political resources of their executive alone, leaning instead on advisors to fill the void and advance their interests. In 3.0, hiring multiple advisors is the norm, with cheaper maintenance costs in exchange for an end to individual bonuses for each advisor. Advisors are more strictly a matter of gaining additional mana for taxation and reform, enabling the realm at the cost of dependence on increasingly influential individuals (with influence replacing skill). Every advisor has their own loyalties, sometimes themselves but always to a corresponding Faction. Advisors as such are a primary means to promote new factions, or to entrench existing power structures. Every new monarch has the opportunity to refresh their cabinet, hiring a full sweep of discounted advisors belonging to a corresponding faction with a reduced stability cost.

仅仅依靠执行者的政治资源常常无法支撑起国家利益,此时就要依靠顾问来填补空缺。在3.0中,雇佣多个顾问是既定的常态,他们的价格变得非常便宜,但也不再会提供那些五花八门的加成了。顾问的角色被大幅限制,其作用仅仅是为税收和改革提供更多的点数,为国家添一分力量,但代加是让他们的影响力不断增长(影响力代替了顾问的各种加成)。每个顾问都会有其忠诚度,有时会忠于他们自己,但一般而言是忠于某个派系。因此,顾问是扶持新兴派系的主要手段,或者也可以用来妨害现有的权力体系。每个新君主都有机会刷新他们的内阁,消耗一些稳定性,以此雇佣一排属于某个派系的打折顾问。

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An alternative is to hire and fire advisors throughout a monarch’s lifetime, enabling new factions at the cost of an immediate partial hit to stability progress. Aside from the risks involved in empowering new individuals with great power, this increased dependence has a State Corruption cost that scales with their influence, representing their increased influence within the executive and ability to create their own, self-enriching power base. In addition to providing the realm with increased mana generation, Advisors often are a requirement for passing various Rights, and with the right pact with the right Elite, can offer a means to bypass Faction influence requirements and pass new sweeping reforms.

或者,你也可以在统治者的一生当中多次解雇并重新雇佣顾问,更换新的支持派系,并立即损失一部分稳定点数。让强有力的新人物掌握权力本就有其风险,而对顾问的愈发依赖,会导致国家腐败度随其影响力不断增长,这代表着他们在执行团队中的影响力愈发膨大,甚至有能力组建起一个自有自肥的权力基础。除了能给国家提供更多的点数之外,顾问也经常是一些权利改革的需求;而如果它与特定的精英有所联系,还能让你无视派系影响力的需求来实施广泛的改革。

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In the new political system of 3.0, the path to modernity will encompass the entire timeframe, representing the feudal realm of France, the bureaucratic Imperial State of China, and the freeholding French Republic within the same framework. There is still more to come, more content to show and more systems to be revealed, but I hope for now this comprehensive view of politics provides a window into the future of 3.0.

在3.0全新的政治系统中,通向现代之路将会贯穿整个时间段,在同一个大框架下表现封建时代的法兰西、中华官僚帝国和财产自有的法兰西共和国。我们还会放出更多消息,还有更多内容亟待展示,更多系统尚未揭秘;不过我希望这篇关于3.0政治系统的详尽日志能够让你管窥3.0的未来。

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feihuang
2020-11-18, 16:43
Post #2


主物质者
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CPU0的噩梦,系统已经如此复杂了还加密了地图,感觉EU4系统承载不了M&T的设计,希望P社能像优化群星那样优化下EU4。
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Trihex
2020-11-19, 07:34
Post #3


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QUOTE(feihuang @ 2020-11-18, 16:43) *

CPU0的噩梦,系统已经如此复杂了还加密了地图,感觉EU4系统承载不了M&T的设计,希望P社能像优化群星那样优化下EU4。

3.0 closed alpha版本的速度比现在的2.52还要更快一些,卡顿也集中在几个运算量比较密集的月份。2.52的优化其实没有做到完美,3.0完全从头开始,很多东西都做到前面了。省份数目相对2.52也没有变。而且比起卡顿,我还是想早点玩到3.0……

不过考虑到DG(宗教系统)这个卡顿主要来源之一还没有实装到3.0里……实际3.0发布时的速度不知道会怎么样。反正制作组保证过3.0的性能表现至少会和2.52一样。

P社优化还是不要想了,有梦是好事,可惜不现实(
不如等EU5(
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